Retinol (as vitamin A palmitate) is an essential anti-aging ingredient due to its ability to refine pores, reduce dark spots, smooth wrinkles and improve skin texture
Vitamin A thickens and stimulates the dermis – where your collagen, elastin and blood vessels are – so it reduces wrinkles and increases blood flow to the surface of the skin. Vitamin A actually increases the deposition of collagen; therefore, it slows the normal aging breakdown of your collagen and elastin.
Vitamin A is the first vitamin approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an anti-wrinkle agent that changes appearance of the skin surface and has anti-aging effects. Vitamin A is in a group of fat-soluble substances and belongs to the category of retinoids. Apart from retinol, that group includes structurally related substances with the biological properties of retinol. Vitamin A and its derivatives are among the most effective substances slowing the aging process. Retinoids regulate the cell apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. Anti-wrinkle properties of retinoids promote keratinocytes proliferation, strengthen the protective function of the epidermis, restrain transepidermal water loss, protect collagen against degradation and inhibit metalloproteinases activity. Retinoid activity is related to high affinity for nuclear receptors: RAR – retinoid acid receptors and RXR – retinoid X receptors.